top of page


Sharp Paula and Ross Eatman, "All About Snail Kites."  Birds of the Florida Swamps.  June 14, 2018.  Web. [Date accessed]  <> 


All images and text are (c) Copyright 2018 Paula Sharp & Ross Eatman.  See Permissions.  


​​Ault, Alicia, "Turkey Vultures Have a Keen Sense of Smell, and Now We Know Why". Web. Jan. 27, 2018. <>

"The Beauty of Ugly:  Why is the Cape Griffon Vulture Going Extinct?"  Nature.  June 23, 2011. Web. Jan. 28, 2018. <>

"Black Vulture."  All About Birds.  The Cornell Lab of Ornithology.  Web. Jan. 28, 2018.  <>

“Black Vulture”.  The Peregrine Fund.  Web.  Jan. 1, 2018.  <>

"Cape Griffon Vultures (Gyps coprotheres)."  The St. Augustine Alligator Farm.  Web. Jan. 29, 2018.  <>

"Cape Vulture (Gyps coprotheres)".  The Atlas of South African Birds, edited by Harrison (J.), Allan (D.G.), Underhill (L.G.), Herremans (M.), Tree (A.J.), Parket (V.) and Brown (C.J.).  Vol. 1, pp. 158-159.  Johannesberg:  Bird Life South Africa, 1997.  Print. Can be accessed at:  <>

"Cape Vulture (Gyps coprotheres)". Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 2, edited by Josep del Hoyo, Andrew Elliott, Jordi Sargatal.   (Barcelona:  Lynx Editions, 1994), pp. 124, 128.

"Cape Vulture (Gyps coprotheres)".  Wildscreen Arkive.  Web. Jan. 1, 2018. <>

Coles, V. E. "Studies in the life history of the Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura septentrionalis, Wied)".  Ph.D. thesis, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY, 1938. Print.

Elphick, Jonathan, Birds:  A Complete Guide to their Biology and Behavior.  London:  Natural History Museum of London, 2016), pp. 66, 118-119.  Print.

Grigg, Nathan P., Justin M. Krilow, Cristian Gutierrez-Ibanez, Douglas R. Wylie, Gary R. Graves & Andrew N. Iwaniuk,  ”Anatomical evidence for scent guided foraging in the turkey vulture.”  Scientific Reports, Vol. 7, No. 17408 (2017).  [Accessed through Scientific Reports, at] 

"Gyps coprotheres (Cape Vulture)".  The IUCN [International Union for Conservation of Nature] Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-3. Web.  Jan. 29, 2018. <

"Hooded Vulture," "Cape Vulture (Necrosyrtes monachus)". Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 2, edited by Josep del Hoyo, Andrew Elliott, Jordi Sargatal.   (Barcelona:  Lynx Editions, 1994), pp. 124, 126.

Jackson, J. A., I. D. Prather, R. N. Conner and S. P. Gaby. 1978. "Fishing behavior of Black and Turkey vultures," Wilson Bull. no. 90 (1978), pp. 141-143.  Print.


Kirk, David A. and Michael J. Mossman, "Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura)," The Birds of North America.  Cornell Lab of Ornithology (P.G. Rodewald, editor. Print version published Jan 1, 1998.)  Web. Jan. 23, 2018.  <>

Long, Adrian, "Africa's Vultures are Sliding Toward Extinction."  BirdLife.  Oct. 29, 2015. Web. Jan. 29, 2018. <>

Migratory Bird and Treaty Act Federal Register, Vol. 78, No. 212 (Nov. 1 2013).  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Web. Jan 27, 2018. <>

"Necrosyrtes monachus (Hooded vulture)", The IUCN [International Union for Conservation of Nature] Redlist of Threatened Species.  Version 2017-3.  Web.  Feb. 21, 2018.  <>

Sibley, David, The Sibley Guide to Birds, 2nd ed.  New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2014, p. 123. Print.

Sibley, David, Chris Elphick, John B. Dunning & The National Audubon Society. The Sibley Guide to Bird Life & Behavior. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2001, pp.183-186. Print.

Tozzer, Alfred M. and Glover M. Allen, "Animal Figures in the Maya Codices," Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Vol. IV, No. 3 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, 1910).  Print. [Available through The Gutenberg Project,].

"Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura)," Audubon Guide to North American Birds.  Web.  Jan. 23, 2018.  <>

"The Vulture Crisis."  BirdLife.  Web. Jan. 29, 2018.  <>

bottom of page