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Sharp Paula and Ross Eatman, "All About Snail Kites."  Birds of the Florida Swamps.  June 14, 2018.  Web. [Date accessed]  <> 


All images and text are (c) Copyright 2018 Paula Sharp & Ross Eatman.  See Permissions.  


"Applesnails of Florida."  Featured Creatures.   University of Florida Department of  Entomology & Nematology.  Web.  June 13, 2018.  <>


"Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge.”  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  Web.  June 6, 2018.  <>

Barribeau, Tim, "Photog Could Face Jailtime, $100.000 Fine for Disturbing Protected Bird Nests:  When the Endagered Species Act says 500 feet, it doesn't mean ram your boat into the nest."  Popular Photography, March 13, 2014.  Print.  Retrieved from Web June 13, 2014.  <>

Brown, L. H., and D. Amadon. Eagles, Hawks, and Falcons of the World. New York:  McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1976.  Print.

Cattau, Christopher, Philip C. Darby, Robert J. Fletcher, Jr. and Wiley M. Kitchens, “Reproductive responses of the endangered snail kite to variations in prey density,”  The Journal of Wildlife Management, April 7, 2014.  Print. Retrieved from Web, June 6, 2018.  <>


Cattau, Christopher, Robert J. Fletcher, Jr., Rebecca T. Kimball, Christine W. Miller and Wiley M. Kitchens, “Rapid morphological change of a top predator with the invasion of a novel prey,” Nature, Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 2, pp. 108-115 (2018).

Clark, William S. and Brian K. Wheeler, A Field Guide to Hawks of North America [of the Peterson Field Guide Series].   New York:  Houghton Mifflin Company, 198, pp. 30, 122-123 and Plate 4.  Print.

Darby, Philip C., Robert E. Bennetts, Steven J. Miller and H. Franklin Percival, "Movements of Florida Apple Snails in Relation to Water Levels and Drying Events,"  Wetlands, Volume 22, No. 23 (September 2002). pp 489-498.  Print.  Retrieved from Web June 13, 2018 at <>

“Do’s and Don’ts of Nest Photography."  Audubon.  Web.  June 8, 2018. <>

Endangered Species Act, Section 3:  Definitions, Paragraph 19 [Defining “taking”].  U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service.  Web.  June 18, 2018.


Endangered Species Act, Section 9: Prohibited Acts, Paragraph (A)(1)(b) [prohibiting the taking of endangered species].  U.S Fish & Wildlife Service.  Web. June 13, 2018.  <>


Endangered Species Act (Summary of), 16 U.S.C. Sec. 1531 et seq. (1973).  United States Environmental Protection Agency.  Web.  June 18, 2018.


"Endangered Florida Bird Species' Nests Lost on Lake Okeechobee After Hurricane Irma."  September 24, 2017.  Web.  June 11, 2018.  <>


“Everglade Snail Kite: Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus.” Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. Web. June 8, 2018.   <>  [Advising observers to keep a distance of 500 feet from active snail kite nests.]

“Everglade Snail Kite:  Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus.”  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (  Web.  June 6, 2018.  <>   [Noting adult female snail kites have red eyes.]

"Everglade snail kite." U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Multi-Species Recovery Plan for South Florida.  U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service.  May 18, 1999. Retrieved August 2, 2011, from <> 

Fletcher, Robert, “An Invasive Prey and the Beak of the Kite.” Ecology and Evolution.  Web. June 6, 2018.  <>

Fletcher, Robert, Christopher Cattau, Rebecca Wilcox, Christa Zweig, Brian Jeffery, Ellen Robertson, Brian Reichert and Wiley Kitchens, “Snail Kite Demography Annual Progress Report" (March 2014) .  U.S. Geological Survey, Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation. Prepared for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Environmental Branch.  Print.  Retrieved from Web June 14, 2018, at <>

Florida Endangered and Threatened Species List - Prohibitions:   Rule #68A-27.003, of Rules Relating to Endangered or Threatened Species.  Florida Administrative Code & Administrative Register.  Web. June 8, 2018.  <>

Florida Natural Areas Inventory (2001).  Field Guide to the Rare Animals of Florida.  Web.  June 11, 2018.   <>

"Florida's Apple Snails." Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission.  Web.  June 12, 2018.  <>

Ghesquiere, S., "Apple Snails."  Apple Snails (Ampullariidae).  2011.  Web.  June 13, 2018.  <>

"Hurricane Irma Destroyed All Snail Kite Nests at Okeechobee."  Audubon Society.  September 22, 2017.  Web.  June 11, 2018.  <>

Kealing, Bob, "Wildlife Photographer Pleads Guilty to Violating Endangered Species Act."  WESH Orlando.  February 26, 2014.  Web.  June 13, 2018.  <>

National Geographic Field Guide to the Birds of North America, 4th ed., pp. 106, 126.   Washington, D.C.:  National Geographic, 2002.  Print.

Pias, Kyle E., Robert J. Fletcher and Wiley M. Kitchens, “Assessing the Value of Novel Habitats to Snail Kites through Foraging Behavior and Nest Survival,” Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management, Issue 7(2), September 6, 2016.  Retrieved from Web June 6, 2018.  


Pomacae paludosa, 1845 [Illustration in Common Domain].  Drawn and colored by  Helen Lawson and engraved by the Alexander Lawson firm.  From Samuel Stehman Haldeman, "A monograph of the freshwater univalve Mollusca of the United States: including notices of species in other parts of North America, Ampullaria, Number 8 (1845), Plate 1.


Pomacaea insularum [the island apple snail].” Global Invasive Species Database.  Web.  June 6, 2018. <>

Pranty, Bill, American Birding Association Field Guide to Birds of Florida, pp. 70-71.  New York:  Scott & Nix, Inc., 2014.  Print.

Putnam, Adam H. [Commissioner of Agriculture],  "Apple Snails."  Fresh from  Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Technical Bulletin No. 8,  October 8, 2019.  Web.  June 12, 2018.   <>

Quenqua, Douglas, "Things Looked Bleak until These Birds Rapidly Evolved Bigger Beaks," New York Times, Nov. 28, 2017.  Retrived from Web June 12, 2018.  <>   


Roger, Nala, “Invasive Snails Rescue Endangered Bird of Prey.”  The Wilderness Society.  October 11, 2016.  Web.  June 6, 2018.  <>

Sibley, David Allen, The Sibley Guide to Birds, 2nd. ed.  New York:  Alfred Knopf, 2015, p. 126.  Print.

"Snail Kite."  The Audubon Society.  Web.  June 6, 2018.  <>

"Snail Kite Nest Confirmed!"  Alachua Audubon Society.  June 4, 2018.  Web.  June 11, 2018.  <>

"Snail Kite Still at Sweetwater, plus The Origin of Our Paynes Prairie Whooping Crane."  Alachua Audubon Society.   May 31, 2016.  Web.  June 11, 2016. <>

Stange, Lionel A. , "The Apple Snails of Florida (Gastropoda:Prosobranchia:Pilidae), Entomology Circular 388, July-August, 1998."  Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Plant Department.  Web.  June 6, 2012. <>

Stevens, William K., "Lesson of Kites and Snails," The New York Times.  March 24, 2014.  Accessed from Web June 12, 2018 <>

"Sweetwater Wetlands Park." City of Gainesville Department of Parks, Recreation and Cultural Affairs.  Web.  June 12, 2018.     <>


Sykes, P. W., Jr. "Some aspects of the breeding biology of the snail kite in Florida," Journal of Field Ornithology, Vol. 58:171-189 (1987).  Accessed through Website of U.S Geological Survey, June 6, 2018. <>


Sykes, P. W., Jr., J. A. Rodgers, Jr. and R. E. Bennetts. 1995. "Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis)," The Birds of North America Online, A. Poole, ed.  Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology.  <>



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